Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults.

The proposed treatments are of limited effectiveness and show little progress. Radioembolization using Lipiodol labeled with iodine-131 (131I) or rhenium-188 (188Re) and microspheres (glass or resin) labeled with yttrium-90 (90Y) is promising but under-used. The more recent developments with microspheres allow a significant irradiation of the tumors without notable irradiation of the neighboring liver with an excellent efficiency and little toxicity.

Sources: NIH.gov, Sciencedirect.com



Intrahepatic visualisation of 166Ho-microspheres after SIRT. T2-weighted MRI of the liver in a patient with several ocular melanoma liver metastases, outlined by coloured regions of interest (a). After SIRT, the distribution of 166Ho-PLLA-microspheres within the liver was visualized by single-photon-emission CT (b) and R2-weighted MRI (c). Reprinted from The Lancet Oncology, Vol. 13, Smits et al., Holmium 166 SIRT in patients with unresectable, chemorefractory liver metastases (HEPAR trial): a phase 1, dose-escalation study, 1025–1034, Copyright 2012, with permission from Elsevier.


North America: American Liver Foundation (USA), Blue Faery (USA)


Compassionate Use Program (CUP)

CUP enables patients with life-threatening diseases, such as advanced cancer, to resort to experimental treatments when standard anti-cancer solutions and access to clinical trials are not an option. Access to CUP programs depends on local regulations and can vary from one treatment to another.

Ask your referring physicians for more information regarding CUP.